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          “千年壽紙”書寫盛世華章
          瀏覽次數:1727作者: 市委信息發布   信息來源: 中安在線發布時間:2019-06-12

            “輕似蟬翼白如雪,抖似細綢不聞聲”。作為中國文房四寶之一,宣紙不僅有著“紙中之王、千年壽紙”的美譽,更承載著中國文化的千年記憶。

            在“中國宣紙之鄉”涇縣,伴隨著共和國成長,從上世紀50年代開始,宣紙行業歷經公私聯營、企業改制,實現從散兵游勇式的家庭作坊生產向國營企業標準化生產的華麗轉身,開啟了技藝傳承、企業發展和產業興盛的時代新征程。

            日前,記者來到位于涇縣榔橋鎮烏溪村的全國最大文房四寶生產企業——中國宣紙股份有限公司,探訪新中國宣紙生產的“前世今生”和美好愿景。

            風雨兼程創偉業

            ——從私人作坊到公私聯營,最終締造國內最大文房四寶生產企業

            “說起宣紙70年的發展,那是起起伏伏波浪式的進程。 ”在涇縣縣城同興巷的家里,曾經多年擔任涇縣宣紙廠(中國宣紙股份有限公司前身)廠長的崔保來回憶當年,思緒萬千。今年83歲的崔保來,1958年進入涇縣宣紙廠,一直到1997年退休,見證并參與了宣紙行業復興初期的艱難歷程。

            新中國成立前夕,宣紙生產因時代變亂全面停產。為弘揚宣紙制作技藝、壯大宣紙產業,1951年10月,皖南涇縣宣紙聯營處成立,統一生產、經銷宣紙,年產宣紙12.8噸,選用一顆紅五角星代替了舊社會封刀口印上的“官”字,“紅星”品牌就此誕生。 1954年,聯營處更名為公私合營安徽涇縣宣紙廠,不久變身全民所有制企業——安徽省涇縣宣紙廠,全面步入發展的新時代。

            崔保來進廠的第二年,就遇到“三年困難時期”。 “當時是真的難,沒有柴油機,我就天天到山上燒窯,用木炭做動力碓皮。工人連飯都吃不飽,流失嚴重,整個廠只有100來個人。 ”困難只是暫時的,上級給廠里特批新增了200個工人名額。不久,口糧問題也得到解決,每名工人每月能領60斤口糧,人心安定,廠子開始步入正軌。“沒有各級黨委和政府的關心,宣紙廠不可能渡過難關。 ”時至今日,崔保來記憶猶新。從那時起,宣紙技藝傳承就打破了“傳兒不傳女,傳媳不傳甥”的舊俗,一改家族式的個體傳承為企業式的群體性傳承。

            宣紙復興之路并非一帆風順。宣紙制造所需的山泉水、青檀皮、沙田稻草和傳統技藝一樣不能少,一直流傳著“寧要三溪草,不要銅陵皮”的說法。崔保來告訴記者:“烏溪有兩股水源,一條弱酸性,一條弱堿性,一條撈紙,一條打漿,都是得天獨厚的造紙材料。 ”采訪中記者了解到,在技術改造過程中,公司也曾走過一些彎路,為傳統手工造紙業的轉型發展積累了經驗。

            改革開放后,由于各種原因,涇縣宣紙一直沒能取得自營出口權,出口只能依賴于外貿部門,企業發展一度受到限制。 1994年,幾經輾轉,中國宣紙集團公司終于順利拿到自行出口權,主要出口日本,當時年出口量就達到100噸,從而促進了宣紙的國際交流和產業騰飛。

            “新中國成立以來,雖然有波折、有挫折,但憑借‘做好每一張紙’的工匠精神和傳承宣紙技藝、弘揚宣紙文化的信念,公司取得令人矚目的發展成就。 ”中國宣紙股份有限公司董事長胡文軍告訴記者,公司目前有員工1100多人,年產宣紙600噸左右,占宣紙行業產量80%左右,是國內最大的文房四寶生產企業和手工造紙領袖企業,被授予全國最具影響力國家文化產業示范基地、國家級非遺保護示范基地、國家重點文化出口企業、國家級高新技術企業等稱號。

            “水深火熱”技藝精

            ——“做好每一張紙”,讓傳統技藝生生不息

            從涇縣縣城出發,沿著205國道向南約20分鐘,進入榔橋鎮烏溪村境內,遠遠就能看到宣紙產地標志性景觀——晾曬成片青檀皮和稻草的白色曬灘,鑲嵌在群山之中,蔚為壯觀。一條山路曲徑通幽,中國宣紙股份有限公司的廠區到了,花磚墻面的廠房精致大氣,公司自建的紅星水庫儲備的山泉水流經廠區,不時可見野魚游弋其間。

            走進繁忙的撈紙車間,迎面一排五個撈紙槽,每槽兩位師傅緊密合作,用手中竹簾在紙漿中輕舀兩下,一位師傅抬起簾往槽外輕巧一掀,一張“紙”就完完整整落了下來。 “撈紙,可以說是一百零八道造紙工序里最難的了。 ‘一簾水靠身,二簾水護胸’,看似簡簡單單地兩簾,卻是決定一張宣紙厚薄、均勻度的關鍵。 ”首批“大國工匠”、撈紙工周東紅說,“一道上漿,二道求勻。雖然紙漿都是配好的,但往槽里加漿多少都是靠掌簾的師傅。 ”

            1985年,18歲的周東紅成為涇縣宣紙廠的撈紙工。最初,他是從輔簾師傅做起,干完大半年,才升格為掌簾師傅。“為了懸浮和分離,紙漿里都加了獼猴桃藤汁。雙手一年到頭浸泡在里面,又不能戴手套,夏天爛手,冬天生瘡。撈紙時候又癢又疼,只能下班回家抹點藥膏,第二天繼續撈。 ”

            三十多年如一日,周東紅只做一件事,也將這件事做到了極致。“像用來拓印或者修復的扎花紙,一刀一百張才兩斤八兩,每一張都薄如蟬翼,我們的成品率和合格率能夠控制在98%。 ”

            “如果說撈紙是‘水深’,曬紙就是‘火熱’。焙面溫度常年保持在65攝氏度左右,夏天連電風扇都不能吹。這是純手工的環節,也可以說是宣紙制造技藝最精華的部分,一絲一毫不能馬虎。 ”另一位“大國工匠”、曬紙工毛勝利從1987年成為曬紙工,摻帖、蒸帖、澆帖、鞭帖、做帖、牽紙到曬紙,日復一日,年復一年,毛勝利每個動作、每個細節都是手與紙的對話、力與藝的結合。

            “手工技藝的傳承是最難的,這是一個不斷重復的過程。咱宣紙人只做一件事,就是‘做好每一張紙’。 ”胡文軍告訴記者,正是這種一以貫之的工匠精神鑄造了宣紙制作技藝傳承的當代傳奇。截至目前,他們共培養了2名“大國工匠”,4名中國宣紙大師,自主評聘了100多名宣紙技師和高級技師,一舉破解了傳承的瓶頸難題。

            文旅融合展新姿

            ——建設宣紙文化園、博物館,打造宣紙小鎮

            走出廠區大門,一眼就能看到靜靜地佇立在青山綠水間的中國宣紙文化園,園內的青檀樹郁郁青青,園內一座主體鋼結構、外觀膜結構的現代建筑十分惹眼,形似一摞錯落有致的宣紙,依山傍水,臨池蓮開,正是聞名遐邇的中國宣紙博物館。

            走進博物館,展廳內墻雪白瑩潤,全部由宣紙鋪貼而成。展廳分為三層,一樓為宣紙歷史與技藝展示區,二樓為館藏宣紙與書畫精品展示區,三樓為書畫展展廳,集宣紙歷史、宣紙技藝、宣紙與書畫藝術、歷代宣紙產品展陳等為一體。

            “我們一大早專程坐高鐵過來看宣紙,第一次近距離接觸到宣紙制作工藝。 ”來自北京的游客佘先生對整個展館贊不絕口,“展館雖然小巧,但宣紙歷史和技藝展示應有盡有,身在其中能感受到濃濃的紙韻墨香。 ”

            在三張三巨宣生產車間的“文魁宣”曬紙作業區,曬紙工將撈好的紙張快速貼上鋼板焙面,輕輕刷過,3分鐘后,輕輕揭下。 “這就是毛邊紙,最后還要修邊切割,一張要賣168元。 ”工人師傅告訴記者。而在一邊駐足良久的山東淄博游客李華忍不住贊嘆:“真是神奇,怪不得人們夸人喜歡講,有兩把刷子。 ”

            “以前我們只是單純地造紙賣紙,現在我們要將宣紙文化生態活態化,充分發揮宣紙文化的價值和影響力,進一步打造‘宣紙小鎮’項目,促進文旅融合,讓宣紙文化走進千家萬戶,努力開拓新時代宣紙技藝傳承和宣紙產業發展的新境界。 ”胡文軍介紹說,該項目占地約為2.83平方公里,以現有中國宣紙股份有限公司、中國宣紙文化園為核心,以“中國特色、世界唯一”為目標,立足“宣紙圣地、文創高地、藝術寶地、旅游勝地”定位,將宣紙小鎮建設成為產業聚集升級、業態跨界融合、驅動宣紙產業創新發展的重要引擎。 2017年9月,宣紙小鎮成功入選安徽省第一批省級特色小鎮。

            ·記者手記·

            “工匠精神”歷久彌新

            在中國宣紙股份有限公司這家手工造紙領袖企業采訪,從公司資深員工、現任負責人到身懷絕技的“大國工匠”,再到一線職工,記者聽到最多的就是“抓質量”“做好每一張紙”這兩句話。幾十年來的發展歷程中,正是秉持質量意識和“做好每一張紙”的“工匠精神”,宣紙人讓“千年壽紙”這一藝術瑰寶重新煥發生機與活力,這也正是宣紙技藝歷經千年生生不息、宣紙企業久經磨煉而長盛不衰的“基因密碼”。

            作為地理標志產品和“非遺”產業,宣紙制作技藝給外人一種神秘難測的印象,每制造一張合格的宣紙,水、皮、草、技,缺一不可。前面三種原材料,離不開當地不可替代、不可復制、不可遷移的獨特資源稟賦,但如果沒有傳統制作技藝的維系,宣紙生產也將是一句空話。宣紙制作技藝獨步古今,從來都是依靠口傳心授式的傳承和心無旁騖的堅守,要吃得了苦、靜得下心、耐得住寂寞。

            在宣紙制作108道工序中被形容為“水深火熱”的撈紙和曬紙環節,產生了兩位“大國工匠”周東紅、毛勝利。在與他們的深入交流中,記者真切地體會到宣紙生產的辛苦和傳統技藝傳承之不易,他們都在生產一線堅守了幾十年,雖然工作環境和條件等一些“硬件”可以改善,但核心工序這些“軟件”必須嚴謹、規范、一絲不茍,精雕細琢、精益求精、追求完美的“工匠精神”一以貫之,沒有他們的巧手“匠心”和辛勤付出,就無法造就“國寶”宣紙的當代傳奇。

            新時代開啟新征程,傳統宣紙產品和宣紙行業面臨新的挑戰,也面臨諸多機遇。但不管時代如何發展,做產品、辦企業、興產業,“工匠精神”始終不可或缺。中國宣紙股份有限公司的成功實踐啟示我們,要實現傳統技藝和“非遺”產業在傳承中發展、在發展中傳承,就必須堅持質量、不忘初心,讓“工匠精神”成為技藝傳承、企業發展和產業興旺的不竭動力。

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